Business in 1800s in Belgaum
Weekly Saturday market was in existence before 1880- Still this Weekly market is on
Wholesale grain merchants were in Raviwar Peth and even today the same story
Woolen- silk materials sold in Khade Bazar road then – Still the same continues
Belgaum has about 250 traders chiefly Brahmans, Lingayats, Narvekars, Marathas, Gujaratis and Marwar Vanis, Parsis, and Musalmans with capitals varying from £500 to £20,000 (Rs. 5000 to
Es. 2,00,000). Some have capital of their own and others trade on borrowed funds. Almost all are independent traders. The chief imports are timber, ironware, glass and other European articles, metal vessels, salt, and coconuts. Timber is bought at the Government stores in Kanara and sold at Belgaum to private persons and Ironware, glassware, and other European articles are brought from Bombay by Vengurla in the fair season and by Poona during the rains ; they are sold to petty dealers and to Brass and copper vessels are brought from Poona and consumers local use ; salt and coconuts are brought from Goa and Vengurla both for local use and to be sent inland.
The chief exports are of grain, rice & wheat, gram, millet, and pulses, and of cloth waistcloths and womens robes.
Grain is bought by grain by merchants at Belgaum from petty corn dealers and growers and sent to Goa and Vengurla. The waistcloths (Dhotis) and robes (Sarees) are brought by cloth merchants from local weavers.
The chief industry is cotton weaving with a yearly turnover valued at about £11,500 (Rs. 1,15,000). The making of -carpets and copper vessels and spinning and dyeing raw silk are the only other industries. Oil-pressing is a very thriving calling in Belgaum and several of the well-off Telis let bullock carriages called dhamnis or Sarvats on hire. Belgaum has seven tanneries to the south of the cantonment near the distillery ; six dyers in indigo, and twenty-two in safflower or kusumba. There are two lime kilns and two small tile kilns to the south of the town.
The municipal vegetable market in the heart of the town was built by the municipality in 1866 at a cost of about £760 (Rs. 7600). The market has fifty-two stalls which yield a yearly rent- of about
£120 (Rs. 1200). The stalls are arranged in the form of a square enclosing an open space which is occupied by cloth merchants on the Saturday weekly market. All round on the outside of the market is an open space which is occupied by squatters who come daily with vegetables and on Saturday by people from the neighboring villages who come with small quantities of grain. Beyond it is a further open space where cart men are allowed to stand with their grain and wood carts.
At the Saturday weekly market all kinds of grain, country cloth, groceries, firewood, grass, earthen vessels, and vegetables are brought from the villages within a radius of twenty miles from Belgaum and exposed for sale. Cattle and timber market is also held on Saturday in an empty plot of ground
to the east of the town and fort where milch buffaloes and cows, he- buffaloes and bullocks, ponies, timber, rafters, and bamboos are sold.
The other municipal markets are the mutton market and slaughter house built in 1872 at a cost of £41 6 (Rs. 4160) and yielding a yearly income of £70 (Rs. 700) ; a fish market built in 1872 at a cost of £102 10s. (Rs. 1025) and yielding a yearly revenue of £4 (Rs.40) a beef market built in 1873 at a cost of £124 14s. (Rs. 1247) and yielding £15 (Rs. 150) a second slaughter-house yielding £18
(Rs. 180); and a cart stand built in 1875 at a cost of £347 (Rs. 3470) and yielding £40 (Rs. 400).
Besides the special market room provided by the municipality, both sides of the Khade Bazar road are occupied by shops of Narvekars, Bohoras, and Marwaris where groceries, woolen and silk cloths, English piece-goods, and oilman’s stores are sold.
The Bhendi Bdzar has a few cloth merchants’ shops where hand loom waistcloths, turbans, and women’s robes are sold. In the same street ready-made native clothing iron and brassware and confectionery are sold at a few shops. All the wholesale grain and salt merchants live and have their shops in the Aditvar (Raviwar) Peth.
Source: Bombay Presidency Gazette